Biennial surveys for five marine and coastal marine species are carried out during the 21 June to 31 October period (2016-2019), between the time of the next Atlantic Hurricane Season opening and the next hurricane season closing. The naturalists carry out daily dives from deep depth through any barrier reef on a fleet of 47 Medium-sized vessels that provides access to the waters of the US and Canada. Every year approximately 400,000 registered dive divers participate in the surveys, with more than 5,500 “taggers” who assist in the marking of healthy or unhealthy coral.
Data for the survey is entered electronically from underwater by the nearest accompanying naturalist, and released in record time online at http://www.catalog.mit.edu/index.php. The results are available for thirty-six countries.
Benefits to Human Life and Economy of Healthy Coral
Adult and juvenile coral reefs benefit humans in numerous ways: increased local food security, food security for human populations, improved tourism for nearby communities, improved access to safe and open sources of water for drinking and bathing, a more sensitive environment for fish, aquatic birds and other animals, and the reduction of natural disasters like tsunami, hurricane and cyclone. The health of Coral reefs affects both the human health and economic balance of the societies involved and have been described by the scientific community as one of the most significant environmental factors responsible for the mitigation of anthropogenic changes in the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans.
In the current 20, a decline in coral mortality resulted from a reduction in the duration of tropical cyclones and outbreaks of storm surge, which is most pronounced when coupled with improved conditions for marine corals. Total population, health, and health status of coral reefs in the US compared to those of prior years and other non-contiguous regions in the Caribbean, Pacific, and Australia.
Coral mortality during a recent decades-long study by the Ocean Conservancy: Because of the six-month hurricane season and varying water temperature variations experienced throughout the year, it has become necessary to have data collected at critical points along the daily flight paths to track and resolve the variability in the mortality, damage, and growth patterns of coral reefs. During the survey, scientists measured changes in the health and volume of healthy coral reef through the use of better dive cameras and better currents and conditions.
35% decline in coral mortality and vulnerability associated with elevated levels of storm surge from Hurricane Matthew
This one-time study estimated the impact of Hurricane Matthew (2017) on the Coral Reefs of New England and Key West, Florida, and Cayman Islands.
Coral has been shown to reflect trends in climate change in their vulnerability and mortality. Based on data collected as part of the NOAA Divers Operation, this estimate provides the best estimates for damage to the New England and Key West, Florida coral reef ecosystems as a result of Hurricane Matthew. Hurricane Matthew followed Hurricane Irma (2016) and Hurricane Sandy (2012), as devastating storms impacted much of the area. The Divers Operation saw coral suffering significant declines in health due to the stress of the storm events.
Sea Turtles in the Pacific Ocean, Florida Keys – How Do They Evolve? What does the future hold?
By flying over the coral reefs of the western US, marine biologists and oceanographers were able to assess information on biodiversity in the area. Just one example of such data was an observation of large marlin in the Large Marlin and Monarch Triangle near Homosassa, Florida, and a spiral fed into the trees. However, further analysis revealed a very complex ecosystem structure which varied and included diverse groups of fish, other small tropical reef fish, giant sea turtles and mammals, including the endangered Steller sea lion.
Research paper: Marine biologists have for some time believed that larger marlin and giant sea turtles have extensive genetic reservoirs that allow them to evolve at a fast rate, enabling their descendants to achieve increased body size while remaining less stressed by the elements. From this it has been assumed that large marlin and giant sea turtles are able to adapt to the changes of the environment better than other species that are not able to evolve. But now the modern study of these large species also helps reveal biological features that are, in effect, the signatures of uniqueness in the complex ecosystems that they inhabit.
A closer look at the DNA of nearly all non-target reef fishes found in the western US Gulf of Mexico: Dr. Michael Kenney, an evolutionary biologist in Mississippi.
A study by researchers with the Florida Museum of Natural History and Florida International University – The scientific literature has shown that, despite very different organismal morphologies, deep-ocean deep-water corals and shrimp closely resemble each other. By extrapolating from recent genetic studies of long-lived, major calcifying organisms of freshwater and other terrestrial environments, Dr. Kenney and his colleagues contend that in the tropical basins of North America, all deep-ocean deep-water cor